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So as mentioned in the previous blog,this blog is to cover the topics : Wilson's view of public administration,New Public Administration,Public Choice Approach,Good Governance and New Public Management.
Here it begins.
WILSON's VIEW OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:
Wilson's complete essay : http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=465
Wilson is regarded as the founder/father of public administration courtesy his special attention to the art of public administration in his seminal essay mentioned above.
In the U.S during the last two decades of the nineteenth century there was a movement started that was a response to increasing Urbanization, immigration, the seeming loss of traditional values, inefficiency,Corruption, etc. The spoils system in administration was given the patronage of president jackson and thus loyal supporters of the victorious party were given plum administrative posts whether they merited it or not.
Woodrow Wilson was influenced by this movement and thus published his essay that insisted on major reforms in the govt. and administration to make it efficient and also this gave birth to the thought of public administration holding enough substance in itself to be a seperate study/discipline independent of Political Science which was popularly referred to as ' politics - administration dichotomy'.
He defined public administration as the detailed and systematic application of law. He believed that politics is about policy formulation and public administration is concerned with the execution of the same. And if both are mixed up then it will only lead to confusion,overlapping,inefficiency and not a stable administration.
He stated that public administration was businesslike and mechanistic and not laced with the ups and downs of politics. He asserted that politics did not have answers to most of the questions of administration and thus is to be out of the sphere of administration and vice versa
According to him administration is to be technically competent and politically neutral for a democracy.
Politicians were elected by people whereas civil servants were trained for the job and were technically sound to carry out the job in the best possible way.
Thus for Wilson, it is said, the Study of public administration, derived from the Study of politics, was to be distinguished from it, but never divorced from its “maxims” and “truths”. To Wilson, public administration was much more than technical detail and it was to be conducted in a political context .Thus he treated “politics and public administration as two sides of a coin”.
NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:
NPA through the Minnowbrook Conferences was the response to the world wars and social upheaval in the 20th century and how traditional public administration was not equipped to respond to this and the societal needs.
It put a lot of emphasis on having values in public administration instead of just bothered about production and profit all the time and make policies for the underprivileged and society.
It was a humanist approach to traditional public administration being practiced at that time.
Its themes were:
Relevance: Traditional public administration has too little interest in contemporary problems and issues. Social realities must be taken into consideration.
Values: Value-neutrality in public administration is an impossibility. The values being served through administrative action must be transparent.
Social Equity: Realization of social equity should be a chief goal of public administration.
Change: Skepticism toward the deeply-rooted powers invested in permanent institutions and the status quo.
Client Focus: Positive, proactive, and responsive administrators rather than inaccessible and authoritarian "ivory tower" bureaucrats.