Earlier Disaster Management was viewed as a short term relief endeavour that lasted till some time after a disaster,but now it has become both pre & post Disaster citing the benefits & lesser losses caused by preventing a disaster or mitigating it through proper policy. That saved expenditure can be then further used for development programmes & policies for the country.
STAGES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT:
1) Before the Disaster: To reduce the potential for human,material or environmental losses caused by hazards & to ensure that these losses are minimised when the disaster strikes.
2) During the Disaster: To ensure that the needs & provisions of victims are met to alleviate & minimise suffering.
3) After the disaster: To achieve rapid & durable recovery which does not reproduce the original vulnerable conditions.
THE DISASTER CYCLE:
1) The Disaster Event/Impact: The real time event of a hazard occurring and affecting the elements at risk.
2) Disaster Response: This entails restoring physical facilities rehabilitation of affected population, restoration of lost livelihoods & reconstruction efforts to restore the infrastructure lost or damaged. One can gauge flaws in the efforts pertaining to policy and planning with respect to location and type of infrastructure and social schemes to improve the social positioning of underprivileged.
Disaster losses can be mitigated to a large extent by effective response on the part of govt. & civil society.
3) Disaster Recovery: Recovery phase involves implementation of actions to promote sustainable redevelopment including reconstruction & rehabilitation following a disaster. It is a long term measure.
4) Development: Once the above is done then the development works begins once again, by development it is meant sustainable development.
RESPONSE MECHANISM IN INDIA:
1) Central Response ( Prime Minister, Cabinet Committees, Home Affairs & Agriculture Minister)
2) Administrative Response ( Operational requirements & provision of Central assistance as per existing policy)
3) Energising the local govt. to strengthen administrative preparedness for disaster response.